Answers to exam on maritime operations and management

Discourse the challenges faced and picks available for disposal of the present ship and explicate the assorted methodological analysiss available for geting and financing the replacing. Every planetary industry is dominated by concern rhythms, which play a important function in finding the demand and supply forces between concerns and clients. The concern rhythms efficaciously operate a specific industry by coercing the weakest and most ill managed companies out of the industry during the downswings therefore leting merely the most efficient companies to germinate. The transportation industry consists by four markets/cycles, the newbiulding market, which allows the trading of new vass, the cargo market, which deals with sea conveyance trades, the gross revenues and purchase market, which allows the exchange of 2nd manus vass, and the destruction market, which involves the scraping of old and disused vass. Once a merchandiser vas has reached the terminal of its utile commercial life there are several options available to the ship-owner in order to acquire to the full compensated from the disposal of the vas.

During the class of this essay we will analyze the challenges faced and the picks available to the ship-owner for the disposal of a merchandiser vas. The first option we will analyze is the destruction of the vas by selling it to a bit pace, while the 2nd option available involves the transition of the vas in order to widen its commercial life. Additionally in the instance where the first option of selling the vas for garbages is chosen by the ship-owner so we will supply and explicate several methodological analysiss available for geting and financing the replacing vas.

The challenges faced and picks available for the disposal of the present ship.

The steady backdown of old inefficient vass and their replacings by new tunnage is a natural technological procedure leting the debut of safer and more environmental friendly ship-designs to come in the maritime industry. This technological procedure offers several advantages such as greater operating efficiency and a general diminution in the maritime hazard associated with the operations of merchandiser vass.


The first option available to the ship-owner for the disposal of an old merchandiser vas involves the usage of the destruction market. The destruction market acts as a buffer equilibrating demand and supply in the cargo market. During a planetary recession the demand for ships used for sea conveyance services drastically decreases, as a consequence an glut of tunnage is created in the maritime industry, which leads in an addition in the destruction of the older and inefficient vass fighting to procure lading. Consequently an proprietor who has a vas, which can non be resold in order to restart merchandising due to the fact that the vas no longer meets international demands, will offer it to the destruction market. Normally the proprietor will name a agent such as a big ship broking company specialising in destructions in order to procure the most profitable sell of the vas among different bit paces. The agents play a important function in selling the vas for garbages since they provide critical information about the vas due to the fact that they are “ in the market ” therefore they can go around utile information such as inside informations of the ship including the ship ‘s lightweight, location and handiness of trim parts. The concluding purchasers of the vas will be the destruction or recycling paces most of which are located in the Far East in states such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China. However in most instances mediators buy the vas for hard currency from the ship-owner and so sell the ship to the destruction paces, moving as the jobber between the minutess.

The monetary value of the vas is normally determined by dialogues, while factors such as the handiness of ships for garbages and the demand for scrap metal may significantly change the monetary value of the vas. Consequently monetary values can be really volatile fluctuating from 100 $ per lightweight metric ton in 1980 to about 400 $ per lightweight metric ton in 2007. Monetary values may besides change depending other important factors such as the age of the ship, the size of the ship and the suitableness of the ship for grating. As agents receive offers finally the monetary value firms-up and a trade is made. Normally a standard contract such as the Norse Gross saless Form is used although several clauses of the contact are irrelevant to a destruction sale therefore agents may take to utilize their ain simplified signifiers. On completion of the trade the purchaser will take bringing of the vas and if he or she is an intermediary will do the proper agreements for presenting the vas to the destruction pace.

The chief hard currency influx for a transportation company is the cargo gross, nevertheless the ship-owner can besides procure positive hard currency influxs by selling the vas for garbages in a destruction pace. If the proprietor of the vas is non forced by any regulative restraints to sell the vas, so he will merely cipher the expected hereafter earning of the vas and the expected costs of maintaining the vas against the monetary value he will have when the vas is sold for garbages in order to make up one’s mind which option is more profitable. Furthermore as the vas ages the gaining possible from cargo rates diminutions while the costs of maintaining the vas in operation additions, as a consequence the cost of taking the vas thought the regular studies significantly increases therefore by selling the vas for garbages the ship-owner can procure a profitable return in his initial investing.


The 2nd option available to the ship-owner is to change over the vas in order to run into international demands therefore extend the vas ‘s operating life. “ Ship transition can be defined as the work carried out on an bing vas so that the ship can execute extra or new maps or to heighten the ship ‘s bing public presentation after the transition ” . The transition of the vas will be carried out in a ship building pace or a ship-repair pace while it normally involves a significant sum of work therefore the vas will be forced to pass a important sum of clip in the shipyard. There are several types of ship transitions available, nevertheless since the vas has reached its utile commercial life we will necessitate to concentrate on transitions which will let the vas to go on trading after the transition is made or transitions which will let the vas to function as an alternate beginning of hard currency influx for the transportation company.

Over the past few decades the International Maritime Organization ( IMO ) in association with other international organisations aimed at the protection of the Marine environment have introduced several new conventions intended to cut down the sum of old, inefficient and environmentally risky vass. As a consequence the option of change overing disused vass into modern sophisticated and environmental friendly ships has attracted a big part of ship-owner. The chief ground behind the increased popularity transitions enjoy, is largely due to the fact that newbiulding vass have high monetary values while the bringing of a new vas normally takes 12 to 18 months. In contrast transition of a vas may take merely 2 to 6 months depending on the size and demand for transitions in the shipyard. There are two types of ship transitions available for a vas, which is no longer allowed to merchandise due to age limitations. The first involves an extension in the ship ‘s life and the 2nd involves the alteration of the ship ‘s map.

Ship ‘s life extension transition is largely provided for vass that have reached an age bound, therefore due to statutory demands can non go on trading. A common illustration of a transition in order to widen the vas ‘s commercial life can be observed in oilers or big majority bearers build in the early 70s. These vass were build for an economic life of 15 to 20 old ages, nevertheless due to the current economic fortunes and the high monetary values of newbiulding vass many ship-owners were forced to change over these vass by overhauling their hull, their saltwater piping and their lading managing systems therefore extend their employment farther. A good illustration for the ship-owner to follow seems to be the transition of the 442,000dwt oiler called “ Sea Wise Giant ” in 1981. The vas was capable to a major transition in order to overhaul the hull and increase its deadweight to 561,000dwt doing it one of the largest oilers in the universe.

The 2nd transition option available for the ship-owner is to alter the ship ‘s chief map. There are several types of transitions in order to alter the vas ‘s chief map depending on the type of the ship. A good illustration is to change over a big oil oiler ( VLCC ) into a floating production storage and offloading vas ( FPSO ) . The vas will go on bring forthing grosss for the transportation, nevertheless its chief map will hold altered from the transit of oil but to the storage of oil. The old illustration of the “ Sea Wise Giant ” besides applies to these types of transition since the vas is now used as an FSPO.

Even thought the transition of the vas may look as the solution to the ship-owner ‘s job there are several considerations he will necessitate to analyze before change overing the vas. Economic considerations play a important function since even after the transition of the vas the proprietor may non obtain a sensible return in his investing. Technical and design considerations should besides be carefully examined since the vas may non be suited for the intended transition. Furthermore other considerations such as the clip the vas will pass in the shipyard, the operation of the vas by competent crewmembers and the beginning of finance for the transition pose important concerns, which the ship-owner should take into history before continuing in the transition of the vas.

The assorted methodological analysiss available for geting and financing the replacing vas.

The funding of merchandiser ships has been a affair of great contention over the past decennaries. As the transportation industry evolves new ways for funding newbuildings are continuously discovered. There are many theoretical accounts suited for the support of new ships, and legion different ways of set uping these theoretical accounts by agencies of commercial Bankss, ship mortgage Bankss, investing and merchant Bankss, finance houses, agents, renting companies and shipbuilding recognition strategies. Since ships have been globally recognized as fiscal assets, which can supply important returns on capital due to their volatile monetary values, financing techniques have become advanced and sophisticated. In this portion of the essay we will supply the transportation company with several methods for financing a replacing vas.

The first and most obvious manner of funding the acquisition of the replacing vas is by utilizing the proprietor ‘s private resources or by utilizing the earning produced from other vass presently in the fleet of the ship-owner or by a loan from relations and close friends. This type of funding was widely used in the nineteenth century, when even thought transporting companies operated as public companies most investings were made by the household and friends of the ship-owner. The funding of the ship through the usage of private financess is largely used by starting-up companies, which have no collateral and no creditworthiness in order to procure a loan from a commercial bank. Additionally transporting companies may utilize this type of support for geting a new vas by puting a per centum of their equity in private in order to garner together several investors who take a important portion of the concern.

The 2nd manner available to the transportation company for procuring equal financess in order to buy the replacing vas is by bank loans. Due to the fact that bank loans provide ship-owners with speedy and flexible entree to capital, while go forthing them with full ownership of the vas, they are widely used by most good established transportation corporations. Most transporting involved bank loans are normally restricted from 7 to 10 old ages while in order for big commercial Bankss to cut down their hazard and exposure to insolvency it is advisable to loan merely the 50 % of the vas ‘s market value, nevertheless if the borrower is a good cognize established and profitable company the sum of loaning can make 70 % to 80 % and in some utmost fortunes even 100 % . There are several types of bank loans available for the funding of the replacing vas, each type with alone features. The first type and most common loan available to the transportation company is called a mortgage-backed loan, this type of loan relies on the ship for security therefore it is available even to companies which have non established their creditworthiness yet. Since the bank can non to the full scrutinize a in private ain transportation company and as a consequence can non trust on the company ‘s balance sheet or income statement for security of the loan, the vas plays the axial rotation of collateral in instance the transportation company is unable to carry through its fiscal duties. As we mentioned above the bank will non supply the full sum for the acquisition of the vas therefore if the transportation company can non supply the staying financess for the acquisition of the vas the bank may necessitate extra security in the signifier of a clip charter guarantee or mortgages on other ships presently in the fleet of the ship-owner. The 2nd type of bank loan available to the transportation company in order to finance the replacing vas is called a corporate loan. This type of loan is normally intender for big transportation companies, which find adoption against single ships inconvenient and clip consuming. Corporate loans are chiefly intended for well-established fiscal transportation companies, which can utilize their corporate balance sheet as collateral for the loan. Additionally this type of loan provides the company with a flexible beginning of significant capital. As a consequence it is normally preferred for transporting companies, which make a big sum of unplanned purchases therefore need to cover hard currency flow fluctuations. The last type of bank loan accessible to the transportation company involves the usage of shipyard recognition strategies. Due to the fact that newbuildings require a significant sum of financess in order to be purchased while those financess normally need to be paid in several installments ( normally 4 ) prior to the bringing of the vas, the purchaser of the newbuilding may supply the first installment to the shipyard for the edifice of the replacing vas while a big commercial bank may supply the other staying installments. This type of loan involves significant hazard for the bank since the shipyard may default its fiscal duties therefore bankrupt prior to the bringing of the vas. As a consequence many authoritiess provide warrants to the Bankss in the sense that if the shipyard bankrupts they will be refunded. From the ship-owner ‘s position since there is no ship to move as a collateral for the loan provided by the bank, the shipyard ‘s bank may publish a refund warrant in order to carry the commercial bank to finish the staying phase payments.

An alternate beginning of finance for the replacing vas may be acquired though the usage of capital markets. There are two chief options available to the transportation company in order to raise sufficient financess for the acquisition of the new vas by utilizing the capital markets. However in order for the transportation company to be able to utilize the capital markets several fiscal establishments must accept it as a well-established and profitable corporation. The first option available is by public offering of equity. This type of funding for the replacing vas involves the offering of the company ‘s stock on one or more stock exchanges such as the New York stock exchange. In order for the company to be able to offer stock around the universe several conditions need to be made affecting the scrutiny of the company ‘s fundss and the assignment of an investing back to move as an intermediary. The 2nd option available of raising financess though capital markets is by publishing bonds. A bond is by and large a debt security, which the transportation company sells to assorted fiscal establishments in order to raise financess. The holder of the bond receives involvement by the issuer normally after every three months. At the terminal of the bonds term the bondholder receives his initial capital for geting the bond by the transportation company. At this point it is of import to advert that the usage of capital markets constitutes a important addition in the transportation company ‘s debt therefore their usage should be closely examined before make up one’s minding that funding of the replacing vas should be done utilizing capital markets.

Finally the last method available to the transporting company of geting the replacing vas is through the usage of Special Purpose Companies ( SPCs ) . These companies get the vas and so rent it or clip charter it to a transportation company. By utilizing SPCs for geting the replacing vessel the transportation company will merely be able to pull off the vas non have it. As a consequence a important sum of the net incomes realized by the vas will hold to be retuned to the SPCs. However several ship-owners have adopted the usage of SPCs chiefly due to the fact that they provide revenue enhancement tax write-offs and off-balance sheet funding.


During the class of this essay we discussed several ways for the disposal of a vas, which has reached its utile commercial life. The options we examined for the disposal of the vas involved the vas ‘s destruction through a bit or recycling pace and the vas ‘s transition in order to widen its commercial life or alter the chief map of the vas in order for it to maintain supplying the transporting company with a positive hard currency influx. Additionally in the instance were the transportation company decided to dispose the vas by selling it to a scrapyard we provided the methods available for geting a replacing vas. We discussed four chief ways presently available to the transportation company for financing the replacing vas. This ways involved the support of the replacing vas by utilizing the ship-owner ‘s private financess, the support of the replacing vas though the usage of assorted bank loans, the support of the replacing vas through capital markets and eventually the support of the replacing vas though the usage of Special Purpose Companies.