Jammu And Kashmir State History Essay

1. The entire country of former Jammu and Kashmir province ( prior to 1947 ) comprised 2,22,236 square kilometres of which as of now Pakistan occupies about 35 per centum, besides illicitly yielding 2.5 percent country to China. China grabbed 17 per centum of the country in 1962 go forthing merely 45.5 percent district with India.[ 1 ]

2. Located between the Shivaliks and the outer ranges of the Great Himalayas – the part has been of huge attractive force. Part of Jammu and Kashmir, soon with India extends about 1,38,832 square kilometres. This can be divided into three wide parts: –

( a ) Ladakh Region. Largest part widening over an country of about 96,701 square kilometres with thin population chiefly consisting Ladakhis who are Buddists and some Shia Muslims in Kargil territories. However this part has merely four seats in the State Assembly.

( B ) Jammu Region. Covering an country of about 26,293 square kilometres, it comprises the territories of Jammu, Doda, Udhampur, Akhnur Rajauri and Poonch. Of these Doda, Rajauri and Poonch are affected by terrorist act. This country is represented by 37 members in the State Assembly.

( degree Celsius ) Kashmir Region. 15,838 square kilometres of the vale houses about 55 per centum of the population. It is represented by 46 members in a 87 member State Assembly. This part can be farther subdivided into the cragged sector and fields sector: –

( I ) Mountainous Sector. Enclosed by the Greater Himalayas to the North and East, Shamsabari scope to the North and West and Pir Panjal to the South, the tallness in the part varies from 2000 to 4500 metres. Rugged terrain and hapless communicating web facilitates infiltration and constitution of hideawaies.

( two ) Plains Sector. The alluvial fields in the vale are served by a figure of rivers, irrigation channels and lakes. The part has major population Centres and a good web of roads and paths.

3. Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Extending over an country of about 77,783 square kilometres, it comprises what Pakistan calls `Azad Kashmir ‘ and Northern Areas with territories of Gilgit and Hunza to the North and Muzaffarabad to the West. River Jhelum is joined by River Kishanganga ( Neelam ) at Muzaffarabad. It is politically the most of import town of the part with central offices of big figure of hawkish groups and developing cantonments in its locality.

4. Analysis. An analysis of parity 2 above high spots the undermentioned facts: –[ 2 ]

( a ) Almost 89 per centum of the country of Jammu and Kashmir, consisting

Ladakh and Jammu histories for merely 45 per centum of the population, whereas the staying 11 per centum of the country viz. the vale histories for about 55 per centum of the population.

( B ) Since the concentration of the population is in the vale, it enjoys a major say in the personal businesss of the province.

( degree Celsius ) Border countries of Jammu part viz. Poonch, Rajouri and Doda have a larger Muslim population ensuing in greater affinity with the people of Kashmir part.

5. Demographic Structure. The province has a population of over nine million. Of these about 64 per centum are Muslims, 32 per centum Hindus and remainder four per centum includes Sikhs, Buddists, Christians and others. Literacy rate is about 40 per centum among little and 20 per centum among females.

Pre Independence History

6. It shall be appropriate to take a brief stock of important events in the history of Jammu and Kashmir as the yesteryear has relevancy to the present. Earliest mention to Kashmir can be found in the Chinese paperss of 541 AD, mentioning the vale as Ku-Shih-mi.[ 3 ]The presence of Naga believers before and even after the Buddhist period testifies that the first occupants in the vale were natives, who subsequently spread over India. Subsequently the Aryans invaded from the north-east and assorted with the local natives. The physical characteristics and cultural civilization, distinct from the environing races has given rise to several speculations – one of them linking the people of vale even with the Jews. It can hence be said that Kashmiri race is a mix of natives, bulk of Aryans, Jews and some other races.

7. It has a long and checked history. Several invasions bear testimony to the significance of Jammu and Kashmir which attracted the attending of encroachers. The pre-independence history of the part can be covered loosely under the undermentioned periods: –

( a ) Pre Islamic Period ( upto 1320 AD ) .

( B ) Early Muslim Period ( 1320-1586 ) .

( degree Celsius ) Mughal Period ( 1586-1752 ) .

( vitamin D ) Afghan Period ( 1752-1819 ) .

( vitamin E ) Sikh Period ( 1819-1846 ) .

( degree Fahrenheit ) Dogra period ( 1846-1947 ) .

8. Pre Islamic Period. During this period, the vale was ruled by Brahmins, Buddhists and certain Non-Brahmins as good. Prominent amongst them were the Gonandas, the Damodarans, the Pandus, the Mauryas, the Kushiaras, the White Hans, the Karkotas and the Loharas. Rule of King Ashoka ( 272-231 BC ) of Maurya dynasty stands out preponderantly. A steadfast follower of Buddhism, he preached the doctrine of spiritual tolerance. This influenced the Kashmir civilization vastly. The last dynasty of pre-Islamic period was the Lohara dynasty. The terminal of Hindu regulation in Kashmir can be attributed to the indifference and clangs between the Brahmins and Buddhists and deficiency of security of the frontiers. This period can besides be described as a period of great acquisition and cultural activities.

9. Early Muslim Period. Islam made its entry into Kashmir by gradual transitions, for which the inflow of foreign adventurers, both from South and Central Asia had made the ground.When Turks, Afghans and Mughals dominated North India, the upper category of Hindu and Muslims in the vale came closer. Sultan Sadr ud-din or Rinchana was the first Muslim swayer of Kashmir. He was originally a Buddhist from West Tibet, who converted to Islam. Sheikh Nur-ud-din was an influential personality of the period whose grave at Charar-e-Sahrif, approximately 26 kilometres sou’-west of Srinagar is visited by 1000s of people even today.

10. The Mughal Period. The Mughal regulation ushered in an epoch of stableness and cultural activities. Kashmiri artisans touched highs of excellence, the disposal improved and trade and industry grew to enviable proportions. Exquisite gardens, laid out during the Mughal epoch, bear testimony to their love for nature.

11. The Afghan Period. In 1752 Ahmed Shah Durrani, the Afghan swayer annexed Kashmir and made it portion of the Afghan imperium. They ruled through governors. In 1810 when discord and battle erupted between assorted claimants of the throne, Atta Mulla Khan, the so governor of Kashmir declared his independency. In 1814, Maharaja Ranjit Singh invaded Kashmir and by 1819, Kashmir came under the Sikh regulation.

12. The Sikh period. The Sikh contact with Kashmir can be linked with the visit of Guru Nanak to the vale. Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Kashmir in 1819. This period lasted merely 27 old ages during which the governors were rough on Kashmiris.

13. The Dogra Period. Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu extended his regulation to Kashmir in 1846. The Dogras ruled till October 1947. With a position to control the power and spirit of the Sikhs and in order to cutdown the Lahore Kingdom to size, the British signed two pacts with Raja Gulab Singh. By the first pact the province of Kashmir was handed over to the British on insurance equivalent to one crore rupees. By the 2nd pact signed seven yearss subsequently, the British handed over to Gulab Singh, all the hilly and mountain countries lying between Ravi and Indus for a amount of Rs 75 hundred thousand. The sum which Gulab Singh agreed to pay was really the insurance of a crore of rupees imposed on the Sikh authorities. The Sikhs were unable to pay the insurance and accordingly agreed to handover Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Baltistan to the British. The British retained the ownership of trans-Beas part merely including Manali and Nurpur, giving balance to Gulab Singh. He extended his district to include Basholi, Bhadarwah, Kistwar, Bhimbar, Rajouri and Skardu covering an country of about 84,471 square stat mis. This period saw a batch of dearths, epidemics, temblor and devastation. However it ushered in an epoch of modern age to include constitution of route and rail communications every bit good as telephone communications.

14. Analysis. Despite two major communities viz. Muslims and Hindus in the vale, there has been a curious common affinity and regard for each other. There is a batch of tolerance giving rise to Kashmiriat civilization in which both communities lived in peace and love. It has imbibed best of Islam and Hinduism. But the common binding of Kashmiris led to a feeling of resistance to Non-Kashmiris.

Post Independence Conflicts

15. While inheriting the freshly constituted states in 1947 anti-communal feelings were besides inherited, which subsequently manifested themselves in Indo-Pak struggles. Since independency, there have been several struggles between the two states in which Jammu and Kashmir was involved. The chief struggles were the wars of 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and the Kargil crisis of 1999.

16. 1947-48 war. At the clip of independency, the hereafter of Jammu and Kashmir hung fire due to the indecision of Maharaja Hari Singh. He had lost the support of Muslim – bulk countries and some of the province force forces had started deserting. Finding the Maharaja vacillating between fall ining one of the rules and desire to go on with his ain regulation, Pakistan launched a tribal invasion and codenamed it Operation GULMARG. On 20 October 1947 Pakistan sponsored tribals invaded Jammu and Kashmir. On 26 October 1947, Instrument of Accession was signed and the undermentioned twenty-four hours Indian Army landed in Srinagar to salvage it from the clasps of Pakistan. The tribal encroachers had wasted three yearss in Baramulla in colza, incendiarism and booty, which delayed their reaching in Srinagar therefore giving Indian Army an air caput. The operation in Gilgit, Skardu and Baltisan went Pakistan ‘s manner. India could salvage Poonch, Rajouri, Valley and such adjoining countries. However the summer offense of 1949 to emancipate staying portion of Jammu and Kashmir did non happen. Nehru suddenly ordered “ no farther progress ” and decided to near the UNO. This war can be described as “ a war where each side threw the advantages gained to the air currents ” .

17. Instrument of Accession. Following clauses of the Instrument of Accession virtue attending, as these prevented merger of the province to the full into India: –

( a ) Clause 6. Indian rule legislative assembly could non do any jurisprudence for the province empowering the mandatory acquisition of land for any intent.

( B ) Clause 7. Credence of the fundamental law of India was non obligatory and the swayer could exert his discretion to come in into any agreements with the Government of India under such fundamental law.

( degree Celsius ) Clause 8. Continuance of the swayer ‘s sovereignty over his province was non to be affected in any mode.

18. 1965 War. Kashmir continued to be an compulsion with Pakistan. It was impatient to make up one’s mind the Jammu and Kashmir issue through military action, before India could get significant qualitative border over it. It launched Operation GIBRALTAR supported by Operation GRAND SLAM in July 1965. Pakistan ‘s political purpose was to make big scale perturbation in Jammu and Kashmir and oblige India to take major political and military stairss and therefore to put it in a quandary whether to curtail its response to Jammu and Kashmir merely or intensify the state of affairs, where the world powers would step in, which in bend would convey the Jammu and Kashmir job to the international forum. Within this overall purpose Pakistan military program evolved around certain outstanding factors like – creative activity of a state of affairs of crisis in Jammu and Kashmir by fall backing to guerilla operations ( OPERATION GIBRALTER ) and in instance the clandestine operations failed, to hold a eventuality program to capture Akhnur, in the Line of Control ( LC ) environment. Operation GIBRALTER had failed. Then Pakistan decided to establish Operation GRAND SLAM along the Chhamb – Akhnur axis, so as to capture some Indian district for bargaining subsequently. Chhamb violative launched on 01 September 1965 had to be called off when India launched its counter-offensive in Lahore and Sialkot sectors. The Pakistani military personnels in Chhamb Sector had to be diverted to salvage Lahore and Sialkot. Pakistan failed to internationalise the Kashmir issue. Status-quo was restored under the Tashkent Agreement of January 1966 and the strategic Haji Pir base on balls was returned to Pakistan, which did non assist India ‘s short term and long term involvements.

19. 1971 War. Brief analysis of 1971 war, though non related to Kashmir issue can be highlighted here. One of the articles in Simla Agreement records: –[ 4 ]

“ In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control from cease fire of 17 September 1971 shall be respected by both sides without bias to the recognized place of either side. Neither side shall seek to change it one-sidedly, irrespective of common differences and local readings. Both sides undertake to forbear from menaces or usage of force in misdemeanor of this line ” .

20. Pakistan suffered a great humiliation when 90,000 defense mechanism forces surrendered to the Indian Army. This gave rise to decide for a retaliation. Like the dissolution of East Pakistan, they started woolgathering of break-up of India, viz. in Punjab, in North East and in Kashmir and therefore started in proxy war. Pakistan attempted to catch a part of Jammu and Kashmir in Siachen Glacier of Ladakh Sector. However it was foiled when Indian military personnels occupied the base on balls by a heliborne operation. Ever since frequent fire battle on the LC/international boundary line has continued.

21. Kargil Crisis. Yet another effort to internationalise the Jammu and Kashmir issue was made in May 99 when in the attire of Mujahideen, Pakistan made invasions in Batalik, Kaksar, Dras and Mushko sub sectors of Kargil. Their military purpose was based on: –

( a ) Exploitation of big spreads in the defense mechanisms.

( B ) Intrusions would enable them to procure ruling highs from where National Highway 1A could be interdicted at a figure of topographic points.

( degree Celsius ) Intrusion would besides pull in and bind down Indian Army militias.

( vitamin D ) It would enable Pakistan to negociate from place of strength.

( vitamin E ) The invasion would irrevocably change the position of the LC.

22. The international force per unit area particularly from USA on Mr Nawaz Sharif forced Pakistan for a backdown. However before that could be affected the Indian Army and Air Force got into action and restored the state of affairs by forcing back the interlopers.

23. Land for Proxy War. Short term stairss taken by the Cardinal Government and vested junior-grade political involvements alienated the local population and gave rise to the separationist forces. Corruptness crept in severely in the administration in the province. Pakistan started working the land set by India, to its advantage by agitating

terrorist act in the province. The action program was based on five major stairss: –

( a ) Exploitation of spiritual sensitiveness.

( B ) Registration of Kashmiri Youth.

( degree Celsius ) Supply of Weaponries and Equipment.

( vitamin D ) Support.

( vitamin E ) Internationalizing the Jammu and Kashmir issue.

24. The infiltration and initiation of weaponries and ammo from Pakistan/POK into Jammu and Kashmir had truly commenced in 1965 when Pakistan made an stillborn effort to catch Jammu and Kashmir.[ 5 ]The fresh weaponries and ammo left behind in 1965 were stored in hidden and good restrained caches. However motion picked up well after 1985 when proxy war was conceived and launched. By terminal of 1989 activists had established little and large cantonments in the forest countries. Communication Centres were developed at Srinagar, Kupwara, Baramulla, Sopore, Gulmarg and Anantnag. By December 1989 phase was set for the activists due to the disregard, impetus and Government ‘s attack being apathetic. The province authorities holding moved down to its winter capital at Jammu was non in intimate touch with the declining state of affairs.

25. Insurgency Since 1989. Attack on CRPF station, killing of Justice NK Ganjoo, snatch of Dr Rubaiya Sayeed, girl of so the Home Minister and her release in exchange for five difficult crore activists are some of the terrorist activities with which it all started in the vale. Kidnapping of Swedish applied scientist from Uri Hydel Project, Mr K Doraiswamy, an Indian Oil Corporation executive in June 1991 and such atrociousnesss continued to lift. In 1992 itself 202 instances of terrorist act occurred in the province. Strike by the province constabulary, followed by 72 twenty-four hours work stoppage by IAS officers of the province further worsened the state of affairs. Hazratbal crisis in 1993 could be resolved by the mature and patient handling by the authorities and security forces. Militant buildup in holy shrine of Charar-E-Sharif had started in terminal 1994. As the initial intelligence studies were non considered in all earnestness, it led to the combustion of the shrine and the operations could be completed merely by 15 May 1995. Kidnaping of five foreign tourers and non let go ofing them despite protracted dialogues brought the terrorists under strong international unfavorable judgment. Parliamentary elections followed by assembly elections were successfully completed in 1996. Killing of guiltless civilians, ambuscade of security forces, abduction and violent deaths continued. 1997 and 98 saw heavy exchange of fire including heavy weapon fire ensuing in heavy harm to the civil population and their assets. Simultaneously with the coach diplomatic negotiations of Indian premier Minister, readyings for ‘covert ‘ unfastened struggle was on in Pakistan.

26. Withdrawal from the highs of Kargil was followed by a bloodless putsch by General Parvez Musharraf. However there has been no alteration in Pakistan ‘s attack towards agitating terrorist act in the province. Militant ‘s onslaught on the central office of 15 Corps and Special Operations Group of constabulary shows their despair. Hijacking of Indian Airlines flight IC814 on 24 December 1999 has once more highlighted their despairing attitude and attack towards appropriation of Jammu and Kashmir. Having studied the geographics, human ecology and historical background of the province, allow us now examine the causes of terrorist act.


1. In the vale the Pro Indian temper evident boulder clay 1950, changed foremost into moroseness and indifference and so to nexious anti India composite. The Delhi Agreement of 1952 and the Kashmir Accord of 1975 highlighted the differences between the Government of India and Sheikh Abdullah. The Sheikh was arrested in 1953 and subsequently deposed. He was reinstated in 1975. His apprehension and dismissal gave rise to the separationist forces. The people in the vale besides felt allow down by India. The pro-Pakistan elements who were hibernating boulder clay so surfaced. The bloopers by the Indian authorities, particularly from the mid 1950ss to the mid 1880ss and frequent alteration of the Chief Ministers farther alienated the populace. By so corruptness had seeped so deep in the province system that major ball of the broad money allotted by the Centre found its manner into pockets of a few influential households merely. Ironically, the land was set by India for Pakistan to work. Pakistan with heavy doses of pan – Muslim support fomented the seed of breakaway motion in the province.

2. Pakistan ‘s continued attempts to annex Kashmir since 1947-48 and its perennial failure in 1947-48, 1965 and 1999 has resulted in utmost defeat as a

state to Pakistan. It views Kashmir in the visible radiation of the two state theory based on

the spiritual alliance. However it shall be disposed to discourse the grounds which set land for Pakistan to work. It could be loosely grouped under internal and external factors. Article 370 of the Indian fundamental law demands to be kept in head while discoursing the causes of terrorist act. This article accords particular position to Jammu and Kashmir, taking at protecting the legal, cultural, regional and demographic rights of its people.

Internal Factors

3. The Chief Executive of Pakistan, General Parvez Musharraf in an interview conveyed about terrorist act in the vale that “ angle can non last in dirty-water ” bespeaking that support of the local population for terrorist act does be. Not defying the loyal sentiments and the finding with which terrorist act is to be crushed, there is a demand to look at our ain house and put the bloopers right even at this phase. These could be studied under political, societal and economic factors.

4. Political Factors. Alliance between National conference and Congress ( I ) led to a political vacuity in the province. This confederation resulted in unprecedented intervention by the Centre in province disposal. High degree tackle of elections in 1987 alienated the multitudes ensuing in loss of religion in the political system in the province. Article 370 has besides prevented integrating of the province into national mainstream to the full. Inability of province and cardinal authoritiess to manage the declining state of affairs in the vale, frequent alterations of head curates and overnors and figure of bureaus covering with the province are an index of deficiency of clear policy and scheme on the topic at political degree.

5. Social Factors. Society in Kashmir can be clearly divided as the `haves ‘ who are really good off, remaining in urban and semi urban countries and the `have nots ‘ who are much larger in figure, by and large rural, belonging to peasent category. Due to deficiency of instruction and basic installations with prevailing societal unfairness, these heads could be easy subverted. Corruptness and nepotism farther alienated the multitudes. Religious fundamentalists found the bing environment merely allow for the proxy war.

6. Economic Factors. Lack of basic substructure, over dependance of the province on grants and subsidies, hapless direction of province economic system with no clearcut economic policies topped with rampant corruptness had brought the province economic system to about a prostration. Increasing unemployment and disparity in the society made the young person disillusioned with the province. This young person was easy available to Pakistan for a `Jehad ‘ .

External Factors

7. Revival of Islamic Fundamentalism. Rise of Muslim fundamentalism affected the complete human civilisation all over the universe in this period. Moslems from assorted states spread to all troubled musca volitanss universe over to include Central Asia, Bosnia and Kashmir to contend a `Jehad ‘ . Religious fanatism and intolerance was propagated in the attire of distributing Islamic regulation wholly over the universe. The consequence could be noticed in the western universe as good.

8. Afghanistan crisis. With an purpose to counter the Soviet military personnels and their influence, immense measure of weaponries came into Afghanistan for the Mujahideens. After the backdown of Soviet military personnels from Afghanistan, the Mujahideens were diverted to the fertile land in Jammu and Kashmir ushering in the civilization of Kalashnikov.

9. The Pakistan Factor. Repeated failure on portion of Pakistan to annex Kashmir from India, its continued committedness of supplying support to the Mujahideens and its ain weak constitution as a state province has forced Pakistan to maintain the pot boiling in the vale. Their purpose in advancing insurgence in Jammu and Kashmir is to annex the vale and other Muslim dominated countries of Jammu and Kashmir. It wants to bind down a big constituent of the Indian ground forces in the vale and bordering countries. It is of the belief that such Acts of the Apostless will go on to protect its involvement in Pak Occupied Kashmir ( POK ) . To accomplish this purpose, General Zia had started giving stuff support to sezession in Kashmir since 1986 and maestro minded OP TOPAC in 1988.

10. Role of ISI. The overall game program of Pakistan was masterminded and implemented by the ISI. Having lured the local young person, indoctrinated and trained them, ISI pushed them back into the vale to propagate terrorist act. In due class of clip as the Kashmiri young person started acquiring disillusioned, ISI began initiation of foreign soldier of fortunes including Afghan Mujahidins who were fiends and ruthless. ISI was besides responsible for the followers: –

( a ) Provide fiscal support to the activists.

( B ) Provide media support and propaganda for the Pro Pakistan outfits.

( degree Celsius ) Induct foreign activists at a phase when support from the local young person was deceasing down.

( vitamin D ) Coordinate the activities of assorted Pro-Pakistan outfits.

( vitamin E ) Neutralise the pro independency outfits.

11. Narco-terrorism. The aureate crescent of Pakistan – Afghanistan – Union of burma facilitated the handiness of illegal financess from trade in narcotics. This so called ‘easy money ‘ provided equal financess for spread of terrorist act in the vale.