1. Harmonizing to Stefan Zweig, how did the people of Vienna react to the eruption of war in 1914? How does he explicate their response? ( 5 points )
It is of import to observe that the First World War that was fought 1914-1918 enters in the annals of history as the war that was fought by unprecedented size of combatants and that the civilian population was the chief mark in this context. The war experienced mass obliteration due to the outgrowth of sophisticated arms ensuing to deceases of over eight million soldiers, 1000000s were wounded and handicapped and 1000000s ne’er came to footings with the injury brought as a consequence of the war.
Harmonizing to Stefan Zweig, the people of Vienna were worried about the disintegration of their imperium and were besides angered by the slaying of Franz Ferdinand, an Austrian inheritor apparent on 28 June1914, in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. They sacrificed themselves to oppress Slav patriotism which they believed was the chief factor of instability or at least kerb its agitation within the Habsburg Empire. The authorities of Vienna felt that they had lost a face. They believed that the Serb authorities was in contact with the terrorists who had carried out the blackwash. The authorities of Austria-Hungary took the punitory move to non merely penalize the Serb authorities but besides to seek and stabilise their already crumpling imperium. The success of the war depended on willingness and support of all to give lives. Able work forces from the age of 18-55 joined the military to contend while adult females and kids took over occupations ab initio done by work forces in Agriculture and industries to guarantee industrial production and steady supply of nutrient non burying to hike up morale in the places and front lines.
2. Harmonizing to Lenin, what was the historical significance of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? What made Lenin ‘s position of revolution different from the other radical motions ( such as those which led to the Gallic Revolution or the revolutions of the early nineteenth century ) that we have examined in this class? ( 5 points )
The Bolshevic revolution of 1917 was a rebellion led by Vladimir Lenin, a Bolshevic Party leader together with his left-of-center revolutionists to contend for what was thought to be ineffectualness of the probationary authorities of Russia. The revolution was characterized by a series of work stoppages, mutinies and street presentations. Its chief historic significance as per Lenin was that this revolution led to fall and abolition of autarchy and lawlessness. The revolutions chief end was to achieve socialism since it was founded on the Lenin ‘s authorship on the political orientations of Karl Marx ( subsequently came to be referred to as Marxism-Leninism ) merely like all other revolutions in other parts of the universe. Lenin argued that socialism would merely win with the assistance of workers from other states. This Marxist motion, unlike other revolutions go oning elsewhere like in France, German and Hungary caused a universe revolutionist moving ridge and succeeded in maintaining power in its custodies.
3. In “ The Hard Line ” Joseph Stalin argued that Russia was “ rearward. ” What did he intend by this ( be specific ) ? What did he suggest in order to turn to this “ retardation? ” ( 5 points )
Joseph Stalin was of the thought that Socialism was possible in one state unlike earlier sentiments by the likes of Lenin and Leon Trotsky that without a universe revolution, socialism in Russia would ne’er win. Stalin argued that Russia was behind in economic development as opposed to other states. He hence set up a Soviet-Union ‘s five twelvemonth program by stressing the production of industrial machinery and farm equipment and alternatively eliminated private concerns. He proposed a corporate Soviet agribusiness by get rid ofing private agriculture and transferred all farms, equipment and farm animal control in the custodies of the authorities. He eventually succeeded in transforming Russia into a great economic power house from an under developed state utilizing this policy.
4. In “ Fascist Doctrines ” Benito Mussolini attempts to explicate fascism by explicating non merely what fascists believe, but besides the thoughts that they oppose. What are the major political orientations that Mussolini criticizes in this papers, and what options does he offer to their thoughts? ( 10 points )
Harmonizing to Bennito Mussolini in the Fascist Doctrines, fascism is based on the complete and absolute neglect to socialism or communism. It centers on an thought of effectivity of a strong centralised system of authorities and authorization.He argues that the dictatorship of the fascism is a complete synthesis and unit that includes all values of a individual ‘s life since it non merely interprets and develops the whole life of the people but besides increases its possible. He says that socialism amalgamates a society into a individual world both economically and ethically and to him, this is merely but a category battle. Likewise, fascism opposes trade unionism and positions it as a category arm which it addresses by urging that one time brought within the orbit of the province ( since it embraces the existent demands that gave rise to socialism and trade- unionism ) , it gives them the due weight by organizing and harmonising the divergent involvements in the province integrity. The whole composite of democratic political orientations is attacked in the Fascism philosophy and wholly rejects them both every bit far as their theoretical premises is concerned every bit good as in their practical application or manifestations. The philosophy further refutes the claim of socialism that concentrates on economic facet as the key to development. It calls for a broad and wide application in all domains of life including all societal, educational and corporate establishments non burying the religious, political and economic forces of a state every bit long as they are adequately organized in their several associations to go around within the province. In the domain of production, the philosophy entirely embraces the thought of private investing and endeavor and positions it as the key to effectiveness in production and functionality of a state. Bing a map of national concern, it appreciates the fact that private organisation of production is responsible to the province since it operates in the way outlined in production.
To sum up in his ain words “ Fascism, the more it considers and observes the hereafter and the development of humanity rather apart from political considerations of the minute, believes neither in the possibility nor the public-service corporation of ageless peace. It therefore repudiates the philosophy of PacifismA – Born of a repudiation of the battle and an act of cowardliness in the face of forfeit. War entirely brings up to its highest tenseness all human energy and puts the cast of aristocracy upon the peoples who have courage to run into it. ” -Mussolini ( Wikipedia )