Training Report on Building Construction

About us:- Emaar MGF Land Limited, one of India’s leading real estate developers is a joint venture between MGF Developments Limited and Emaar Properties PJSC (“Emaar”) of Dubai. Emaar is one of the world’s foremost real estate companies with operations in 16 countries. MGF has over the last 10 years established itself as one of the key players in retail real estate development in India. The Company commenced operations in India in February 2005. Its primary business is development of properties in residential, commercial, retail and hospitality sectors.

In addition, it has also identified healthcare, education and infrastructure as business lines for future growth. Its operations span across various aspects of real estate development, such as land identification and acquisition, project planning, designing, marketing and execution. The Company’s mission as a real estate development company is to develop and deliver unique integrated lifestyle and work place environments and planned developments and to be recognized as a responsible corporate citizen and an employer of choice.

One of its main focus areas is developing integrated master planned communities means wherein the developments have one or more community facilities, including hospitals, schools, retail and commercial buildings enabling a “live, work and play” theme within the same development. The company has strategic tie ups with global players like Turner, Leighton and Multiplex for project management and construction services. It has also entered into partnerships with international hospitality majors. ike Accor and Premier Inn for budget and limited services category properties, Marriott, Hyatt and Intercontinental and Four Seasons for the up market and luxury category. Emaar MGF’s association with Hamptons Group Limited, a global property sales, management and development services company, also helps the company leverage its sales and marketing expertise for Emaar MGF properties. Project undergoing:- Mohali Hills:- Close to Chandigarh lies the haven of Mohali Hills, a gated mixed use community for those who appreciate the best that life has to offer.

Designed to nurture family living in a secure 3000 acre environment, Mohali Hills offers luxury villas, apartments, terraced townhomes, leisure and shopping options which provide families with privacy and protection, yet the freedom to grow and flourish in a thriving neighbourhood. Mohali Hills evokes charm and character, perfectly complemented by nature. The best of schools, a retail centre and contemporary offices complete the masterplanned community. Emaar MGF’s signature project, Mohali Hills, includes residential plots, townhouses and villas.

Along with convenient shopping malls, landscaped gardens and recreational centers, the township will house special education and wellness zones, with fully equipped hospitals, schools and colleges with an aim to provide institutional facilities to the residents of the township. The community will also include a world class office and IT park which in turn will provide a fillip to industry and businesses in the State. BUILDING:- Any structure constructed of whatsoever materials and used for residential, business or other purposes is called building. Purpose of building:- ) The preliminary object of a building is to provide shelter to the inmates. 2) To provide sufficient accommodation for the purpose for which it is constructed. 3) To provide protection to the inmates from the heat and glare of the sun. 4) To provide protection against thieves and house breakers. Parts of a building:- * Sub-structure * Super structure Sub structure The part of the building below the ground level is called sub structure. In major buildings the ground level are constructed to provide accommodation. These portion is mainly used as basements and parking lots. Super structure

The part of the building above the ground level is called super structure. Parts of Super Structures:- 1) Walls 2) Roof 3) Floors 4) Verandah 5) Doors Classification of Buildings:- * Based on occupancy * Based on type of construction Classification based on occupancy:- i) Residential Building:- The building in which the sleeping accommodation is provided fro normal residential purpose. ii) Educational Building:- The building used for school, colleges or the day care purpose. iii) Institutional Buildings:- The buildings used for purpose such as medical or other treatment purpose. v) Assembly Buildings:- The buildings where the groups of people gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and other similar purpose. v) Business Building:- The building used for truncation for business, for the keeping of accounts and records and other similar purpose. vi) Industrial Buildings:- The building in which products of all kinds are produces, assembled, or processed. vii) Storage Building:- The building used primarily for the storage or sheltering of the goods, wares or merchandise, vehicles, or animals. Work we Performed: –

As we are the trainee Engineer here so our main work is to supervise the work and get use to the atmosphere here. They teach us the work initially and then we see that work practically and compare that with our books that what we had learned in our college is practically applicable or not. As explained earlier the work going on there we are handling the work of construction of villas. They Not only gave us authority to observe the work but also gave us full independence to give our suggestion to the contractor where we feel that work quality should be improved.

They also told us to made a separate register to note down all the Daily progress of work we perform on the site and a separate register for the Estimating and Costing work. Work we handle: – As explained earlier we handle the work of villas. In which we supervise the works like Brickwork, Casting of lintels and Columns, Casting of Slab, Plastering work and some of the necessity test on the quality of work. * Brick work: – Brick binds are mainly of two types:- * English bond * Flemish bond

As the structures here are composite structure which means structures not only based on columns and Beams it also contains some of Load bearing as well as Non-load bearing walls. The load bearing walls are 230mm (9 inch. ) which means 1 thick wall and Non-load bearing wall (pardhi wall) are 115mm (4? inch. ) thick which means half thick wall. The mortar used in load bearing wall having ratio of 1:6 and non-bearing wall 1:4. The bond used in brickwork is English Type of bond in which header and stretcher are placed in alternative layer. In villas,English bond brickwork is done.

We have to see the bricks are properly soaked they have good appearance and shape and the gaps are sufficiently filled with mortar, the alignment of wall with the help of Plumb bob. The ratio of mortar used by testing and the prepared mortar is fresh enough like made more then 2 hours is not used in brickwork. All these things should be kept in mind also we have to see proper Queen Closer should be placed at the end of wall. * Plastering work:- Plastering is the process of covering the rough surface of walls , columns, ceilings and other building components with thin coat of plastic mortars to form a smooth durable surface.

The coating of plastic material is termed as plaster. Plastering on external exposed surfaces is known as rendering. Plastering on walls should be of ratio 1:4 i. e one bag of cement and four bags of sand. External plastering is of 20 mm and is done in two coats first of 12mm and then of 8mm. * The joints of the brick work shall raked out to a depth of 12 mm and the surface of the wall washed and clean and kept wet for the two days before plastering. The material of mortar should be of standard specification. The thickness of the plastering shall be of 12mm to ensure uniform thickness of plaster; patches of 15 cm shall be applied first at about 2 m apart to act as guide. First mortar shall be dashed and pressed over the surface and then brought to a true smooth and uniform surface by means of float and trowel. Wall plastering shall be started from top and worked down towards floor,. Ceiling plastering shall be completed before starting of wall plaster. All corner and edge shall be rounded. The plastered surface shall be kept wet for 10 days the surface should be protected from rain, sun, frost, etc. For wall plastering 1:5 cement mortar and for ceiling plastering 1:3 cement mortar with coarse sand is used. FINE AGGREGATES:- For the concrete work shall coarse sand/coarse stone dust conforming the relevant IS. COARSE AGGREGATE:- For all the concrete work shall be broken/crushed locally best available grade coarse aggregated size shall be as specified in structural drawing. While internal plastering is of 12mm and done in a single coat. Mixing of materials should be done with mixture machine only, and if hand mix mixture is used then acc. to the I. S. standards 10% of cement extra is used in mixing. Casting of slab: – Casting of slab is very important stage of construction because every aspects of depends on that. Before casting of concrete the steel of different dias according to design is laid and binds together and the frame before that is properly checked that they have a proper uniform level with the help of leveler. After checking all this the slab is casted and the concrete is used in the slab is of Characteristic strength 20 Mpa and is imported by RMC’s . During casting of column proper vibration is needed with the help of pin headed Vibrator so that no honeycombing is occur in the slab.

The slab is cured properly for 7 days after the casting of concrete as water is flooded over the slab for avoiding the shrinkage cracks on that. STEEL:- TMT FE415/FE 500 Steels to be shall be factory rolled and should be processed only SAIL or any other ISI mark. FORM WORK GENERAL:- * The form work shall be designed and Constructed to the shapes, lines and dimension shown on the drawings. * All the form work shall be sufficiently water tight to prevent the water leakage of mortar. It shall be constructed as to be removable In section. Timber for temporary work such as shuttering scaffolding, centering etc. shall be provided with any class of woods , but it should suitable long enough for purpose for which it is used should be preferably by 1st class soft wood and ply. * The timber for form work shall be clean and when concrete may be finished without application of plaster the timber form work may be clean shown on the inside face . CLEANING AND TREATMENT OF FORM WORK * All rubbish, particularly chipping, shaving and saw dust shall be removed from interior of the forms before the concrete is placed . The form work in contact with concrete shall be cleaned with approved composition to prevent adhesion between form work and concrete work. We use wire brush to clean the forms to keep them clean for next work of construction. STRIPPING TIME OF FORM WORK * Attain a strength at least the strength to which the concrete may be subjected. * At the same proportion and cured under the condition of the temperature and moisture similar to there existing on the work. Forms Shall Not Be Struck Until The Concrete Has * Walls, Columns & Vertical Faces:- 2 DAYS * Slabs:- 7 DAYS * Beams Soffits:-7DAYS Removal Of Props Under Slab Span 3mts:-14DAYS REMOVAL OF PROPS UNDER BEAMS & ARCHES * Spanning Up To 3. 60mts:-14DAYS * Spanning Up To 6. 90mts:-21DAYS Forms shall not be struck until the concrete has attain a strength at least twice the strength to which the concrete may be subjected at the same proportion and cured under conditions of the temperature and moisture similar to there existing on the work. Stripping time 1. Walls, columns, & vertical faces2 days 2. Slabs 7 days 3. Beam soffits7 days 4. Removal of props under slab span 3 mts14 days 5. Removal of props under beams & arches 14 days . Spanning up to 3. 60 mts14 days 7. Spanning up to 6. 90 mts21 days & Form work for column Removal of the formwork The period for which forms should be left in place depends upon the temperature of air, the shape and position of structural member (i. e. horizontal vertical or inclined), the nature of the loads likely to come and the character of the cement and cement paste. Generally, the use of rapid hardening cement, higher temperatures, low water cement ratio and lighter loads, will permit early removal of formwork. Under normal conditions where temperature is above 20?

C and ordinary cement is use, forms may be removed after the expiry of the period given below: Particulars of the structural period of member removing of formwork (a) Vertical slides of slabs, beams 24 to 48 hours columns and wall (b) Slabs (props or vertical supporting 3 days member left under) (c) Beams soffits (props left under) 7 days (d) Bottom of slabs up to a span 7 days of 4. 5 m. (e) Bottom of slabs above 4. 5 m 14 days span, bottom of the beams up to 6 m span, and bottom of arch ibs up to 6 m span (f) Bottom of beams over 6 m span 21 days and bottom of arch ribs over 6 m span CEMENT CONCRETE:- Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, fine aggregates(sand) and coarse aggregates (gravels, broken stone etc. ) which when packed in forms and allowed to cure becomes hard like stone. Concrete grows stronger with age. Weight of cement concrete is 24000n/m2. It is mainly for foundation work and flooring work of buildings. Stages In Making The Concrete:- * Design of the concrete for strength and durability * Selection of the materials and their proportioning for requisite properties. Mixing the ingredients of the concrete and placing the same in the position * Curing of concrete. Factors Affecting Properties Of The Concrete:- (a) Quantity of cement (b) Size, grading and moisture of aggregates (c) Water-cement ratio (d) Proportioning of ingredients (e) Methods of measuring materials by volume or weight (f) Machine mixing or hand mixing (g) Methods adopted for placing and compaction (h) Methods of curing. Application of R. C. C:- R. C. C. is the most commonly used construction material, consumed at the rate of 01 tone for every living human being. R. C. C. is used for Construction of:- Beams, Columns and slabs in residential commercial and industrial buildings. * Highway and railway bridges. * Water retaining structures like ground and overhead water tanks. * Thermal and nuclear and hydro-electrical power plants. * Marine structures (watch towers, light houses. ) * Tunnels and irrigation works. * Pavements for highways and airport runways. * Poles for electric power transmission. Advantages of R. C. C. * It can be easily molded to any desired shapes and size. * It makes the construction work look easy due to the availability of its material. * It is fire resistant * It is impermeable to moisture It is durable as it can resist the action of weathering agencies * It is cheap in long run as its maintenance cost is very low * It can resist the earthquake shocks. Limitations of R. C. C. :- * The initial cost of R. C. C is high. * The dead loads of the structure is increased. * Its construction requires large quantity of timber or steel plates for formwork. * It requires skilled labour for construction. Reinforcing materials The material which develops a good bond with concrete in order to increase opts strength is called reinforcing material. Characteristics of a reinforcing material:- It should be cheap and easily available * It should be durable * It should be able to develop a good bond with concrete so that the stresses are easily transferred from the one material to another * It should have high modulus of elasticity * It should be easy to cut, bend or weld Suitability of steel as a reinforcing material Steel fulfills almost all the characteristics required for a reinforcing material. Hence it is the most suitable reinforcing material. * It has high tensile strength * It is highly elastic * It can be developed good bond with concrete as its coefficient of expansion is nearly equal to that of concrete. Common tests on the fresh concrete * Concrete is tested to ensure that the material that was specified and bought is the same material delivered to the job site. There are a dozen different test methods for freshly mixed concrete and at least another dozen tests for hardened concrete, not including test method unique to organization like the Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration, and State department of transportation. * * Slump, air content, unit weight and compressive strength tests are most common tests. * * Slump is a measure of consistency, or relative ability of the concrete to flow.

If the concrete can’t flow because the consistency or slump is too low, there are potential problems with proper consolidation. If the concrete won’t stop flowing * because the slump is too high, there are potential problems with mortar loss through the formwork, excessive formwork pressure, finishing delays and segregation. * Air content measure the total air content in a sample of fresh concrete, but does not indicate what the final in-place air content will be, because a certain amount of air is lost in transportation Consolidating, placement and finishing.

Three field tests are widely specified: the pressure meter and volumetric method are ASTM standards and the Chace Indicator is an AASHTO procedure. * Unit weight measures the weight of a known volume of the fresh concrete. * Compressive strength is testes by pouring cubes of fresh concrete and measuring the force needed to break the concrete cubes at prescribed interval as they harden. According to Building Code Requirements for reinforced concrete (ACI 318) as long as no single test more than 500 psi below the design strength and the average of three consecutive tests equals or exceed the design strength then the concrete is acceptable.

If the strength tests don’t meet these criteria, steps must be taken to raise the average. * CURING PROCESS * Exposed surfaces of concrete shall be kept continuous in a damp or wet condition by covering with a layer of sand for at least seven day compound may used in moist curing with the permission of architect. * Such as compound shall be applied to all exposed to surface of concrete as soon as possible after concrete has set. IMPORTANCE OF CURING * It improves the wear resisting and weathering effect. * It increases impermeability and durability. * It reduces shrinkage. METHODS OF CURING SHADING CONCRETE WORK * COVERING CONCRETE SURFACES WITH HESSIONS * SPRINKLING OF WATER * PONDING METHOD * MEMBRANE CURING * STEAM CURING SPRINKLING OF WATER * Sprinkling of water continuously on the concrete surfaces provides an efficiently curing. * It is mostly used for curing floor slabs. The concrete should be allowed to set sufficiently before sprinkling is started. SHADING OF CONCRETE WORK The object of shading concrete work is to prevent the evaporation of water from the surface even before setting. This is adopted mainly in case of large concrete surfaces as roads , slabs.

PONDING METHOD This is best method of curing. It is suitable for curing. It is suitable for curing horizontal surfaces such as floors, roof, slabs and field pavement. The horizontal taps surface of the beam can also be ponded. After 24 hours there is placed small bunds of clay and sand across the whole area is to be curved and water is filled in them to do proper curing. Various test performed for the quality analysis of material:- The various tests have been performed on the materials that we use on the site is proper in the laboratories like on bricks, mortar, sand, concrete cubes etc.

The tests like brick dimension and crushing strength have been performed on the bricks and the ratio analysis test on the mortar we use on the site. For testing the crushing strength of the concrete we cast the concrete in the cubes of 150mm in mould and by curing them properly we test on crushing testing machine after 7 days and 28 days. Silt level in soil used is checked at site by mixing it with water n then checking ratio of silt ,the quantity calculated should be less than 3%,otherwise soil is rejected.